Router design takes quite a bit of hardware organization. The internal of a router is divided into forwarding decision, backplane, and output-link scheduler. Forwarding decision takes care of the MAC header (TTL, checksum, and etc.). Output-link scheduling handles flow or priority control to meet QoS, while the backplane does the actual transfer from the input to its outgoing port. The paper analyzes the design of backplane.
Traditionally, backplane is built using bus. This is called "shared backplane". It's known to be non-scalable because at most one port can transmit at any given time. Using crossbar switch would be much more scalable, since there are multiple connections between the set of inputs and outputs. Packets can be transmitted simultaneously. There is time slot, and the between each time slot the switch is reconfigured. This means packets needs to be fixed length now in order to fit the time slot. This sounds similar to the comparison between CSMA and TDMA, only this being at the circuit level.
Crossbar-switched backplane faces three scenarios that may block signal from transmitting. First is called head-of-line (HOL) blocking, which comes from scheduling multiple FIFO queues. The top element prevents the ones after from participating. Input and output blocking are caused by contention in accessing the hardware.
The way to deal with HOL blocking is to move away from FIFO and use something called Virtual output queuing (VOQ). Input maintains a queue for each output port, and sort the incoming packet into the corresponding queue before choosing one VOQ as input to enter the crossbar switch. In a sense, it adds an additional multiplexing stage. A simple scheduling algorithm called iSLIP is used to schedule these VOQs. iSLIP is two-sided (hand-shaking agreement), where output-side uses RR and input-side uses priority.
I wish the VOQ stuffs can be illustrated more in the paper. Sometimes it's hard to picture how these things are implemented. More importantly, they don't give a sense of what the overhead and cost are, even though the paper seems to focus heavily on implementation.
The paper gives a rough overall picture of the tread in router design. It gives a good sense to beginners like me in knowing about how queuing is done in routers. I recommend keeping this paper, especially if you'll need to read the optics paper.